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Jurgen Klopp revealed Philippe Coutinho lost three kilograms in three days with illness before his man-of-the-match performance in Liverpool's win at Stoke.

The Brazilian came on at half-time alongside compatriot Roberto Firmino, and both scored in the space of three minutes in the second half after Jon Walters' first-half opener for Stoke.

Klopp, who had said in midweek that Coutinho would not even travel with the Liverpool team to Stoke, praised the Brazilians, who replaced youngsters Ben Woodburn and Trent Alexander-Arnold at the break.

Asked if the initial plan was to introduce Coutinho and Firmino later in the game than half-time, Klopp told Sky Sports: "That was the plan really, but of course you never know, Coutinho lost three kilograms in three days, maybe a few people would love to have this but it's not good for a professional football player!

Klopp wasn't happy with the first-half performance from his players, but was delighted with the win given the situation with his squad and the quality of opposition.

It wasn't a great football game for both sides. Of course people say why don't we use the two Brazilians from the start, but you can see even last 15 minutes we had low battery.

From this point of view it was hard, hard work. I'm really, really happy, it's such a difficult place to play football against a strong side.

Watch every drive, chip and putt from Augusta in the battle for the coveted Green Jacket. That's the goalkeeper's job, I'm really happy for him, I have no idea how he saved the second chance, and the first one from Adam was a really good one.

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However, this information is essential for deriving necessary measures to reduce emissions. Japanese defenses were much weaker by night, and the three bombers lost in this attack crashed due to mechanical problems.

The two raids on Nagoya killed 3, Japanese and rendered another , homeless. In the first of these raids Bs destroyed 5.

The Japanese defenses were relatively successful on this occasion, and 26 Superfortresses were shot down and another damaged.

By the end of these raids just over half This force was intercepted by A6M Zero fighters, sparking an intense air battle in which five Bs were shot down and another damaged.

In return, the P pilots claimed 26 "kills" and 23 "probables" for the loss of three fighters. The Bs that reached Yokohama struck the city's main business district and destroyed 6.

The Minister of Home Affairs , Iwao Yamazaki , concluded after these raids that Japan's civil defense arrangements were "considered to be futile".

The firebombing campaign against major cities ended in June. On the first day of the month Bs escorted by Ps were dispatched in a daylight raid against Osaka.

While en route to the city the Mustangs flew through thick clouds, and 27 of the fighters were destroyed in collisions. Nevertheless, heavy bombers and 27 Ps reached the city and the bombardment killed 3, Japanese and destroyed 3.

On 5 June Bs struck Kobe by day and destroyed 4. A force of Bs attacked Osaka again on 7 June; during this attack 2.

Osaka was bombed for the fourth time in the month on 15 June when Bs destroyed 1. During May and June the bombers had destroyed much of the country's six largest cities, killing between , and , people and rendering millions homeless.

The widespread destruction and high number of casualties from these raids caused many Japanese to realize that their country's military was no longer able to defend the home islands.

American losses were low compared to Japanese casualties; Bs were downed during the campaign. This decision was made despite a recommendation from the United States Strategic Bombing Survey USSBS team, which was assessing the effectiveness of air attacks on Germany, that operations against Japan should focus on the country's transportation network and other targets with the goal of crippling the movement of goods and destroying food supplies.

As both the cities and industrial facilities targeted were relatively small, the B force would be sent against multiple locations on days in which attacks were conducted.

This targeting policy, which was labeled the "Empire Plan", remained in force until the last days of the war. Five major precision bombing attacks were conducted as part of the Empire Plan.

On 9 June, two groups of Bs bombed an aircraft factory at Narao and another two groups raided a factory in Atsuta ; both facilities were badly damaged.

A single group of Superfortresses also attempted to bomb a Kawasaki Aircraft Industries factory at Akashi but accidentally struck a nearby village instead.

Most of the factories targeted were badly damaged. Heavy clouds over the region meant that many bombers attacked targets of opportunity individually or in small groups, and little damage was done to the raid's intended targets.

Four of the factories attacked suffered heavy damage. Renewed cloudy weather prevented any further Empire Plan precision attacks in the last weeks of the war.

Of the Bs dispatched, struck their targets and Hamamatsu, Kagoshima, Yokkaichi suffered extensive damage; overall 6.

The cities were almost undefended and no Bs were lost to Japanese actions. As the campaign continued and the most important cities were destroyed, the bombers were sent against smaller and less significant cities.

On most nights that raids were conducted, four cities were attacked, each by a wing of bombers. Sixteen multi-city incendiary attacks had been conducted by the end of the war an average of two per week , and these targeted 58 cities.

The incendiary raids were coordinated with precision bombing attacks during the last weeks of the war in an attempt to force the Japanese government to surrender.

The firebombing campaign against small cities continued through June and July. Kumamoto , Kure, Shimonoseki and Ube were bombed on 1 July.

Gifu , Sakai , Sendai and Wakayama were struck on 9 July. After a break of almost a week, Matsuyama , Omuta and Tokuyama were firebombed on 26 July.

It has been estimated that Bs dropped 10 million propaganda leaflets in May, 20 million in June and 30 million in July. The Japanese government implemented harsh penalties against civilians who kept copies of these leaflets.

No Bs were lost in the raids on these cities, though six were damaged by attacks from between 40 and 50 fighters and another five were hit by anti-aircraft fire.

August began with further large-scale raids against Japanese cities. On the 1st of the month, Bs staged the largest single raid of World War II, dropping 6, tons of bombs and mines.

Arriving in the Marianas in April , the th underwent a period of operational training before flying its first attack against the Utsube Oil Refinery at Yokkaichi on the night of 26 June.

During these attacks it destroyed six of the nine targets attacked for the loss of four Bs. However, as Japan had almost no crude oil to refine due to the Allied naval blockade of the home islands these raids had little impact on the country's war effort.

Arnold and his staff were unenthusiastic about these proposals, however, as they believed that such missions would divert too many Superfortresses away from precision bombing attacks.

In response to repeated requests from the Navy, Arnold decided in November to begin mine-laying operations once sufficient aircraft were available.

In January , LeMay selected the th Bombardment Wing to be the Twentieth Air Force's specialist mine-laying unit, and the Navy provided assistance with its training and logistics.

LeMay designated the aerial mining campaign Operation Starvation. Its rate of effort increased in May, when it conducted missions against harbors and other choke points around Honshu and Kyushu.

The air-dropped minefields greatly disrupted Japanese coastal shipping. In response to this offensive, the Japanese greatly expanded their mine-sweeping force by ships and 20, men and deployed additional anti-aircraft guns around the Shimonoseki Strait.

They had little success in permanently clearing minefields or downing the Bs, however. Many of Japan's major harbors, including those of Tokyo, Yokohama and Nagoya, became permanently closed to shipping.

During the last weeks of the war, Bs continued to drop large numbers of mines off Japan and the campaign was expanded into Korean waters.

Following the war, the USSBS assessed that the Twentieth Air Force should have placed a greater emphasis on attacking Japanese shipping given the effectiveness of these attacks.

This task force was the US Navy's main striking force in the Pacific, and comprised 11 fleet carriers , five light aircraft carriers and a powerful force of escorts.

The American naval aviators claimed "kills" against Japanese aircraft and the destruction of a further on the ground for the loss of 60 aircraft in combat and 28 in accidents.

Several ships were also attacked and sunk in Tokyo Bay. The Task Force attempted a second raid against the Tokyo area on 25 February, but this operation was frustrated by bad weather.

The American ships sailed south, and attacked Okinawa from 1 March. The next day they attacked Japanese warships at Kure and Kobe , damaging the battleship Yamato and aircraft carrier Amagi.

During the attacks on 18 and 19 March, the American naval aviators claimed to have destroyed Japanese aircraft in the air and on the ground, while the Japanese placed their losses as of the aircraft they committed in the air and an unspecified number on the ground.

At this time the Task Force comprised nine fleet carriers, six light carriers and their escorts. No Japanese fighters were encountered in the air, however, as they were being kept in reserve for a planned large-scale suicide attack on the Allied fleet.

These strikes continued the next day, and sank eight of the 12 railway car ferries which carried coal from Hokkaido to Honshu and damaged the remaining four.

Many other ships were also destroyed in this area, including 70 out of the small sailing ships which carried coal between the islands. Once again no Japanese aircraft opposed this attack, though 25 were destroyed on the ground.

The naval aviators claimed to have destroyed aircraft in their attacks on 9 August and damaged a further Another raid was launched against Tokyo on the morning of 15 August, and the aircraft of its first wave attacked their targets.

The second wave aborted its attack when word was received that Japan had agreed to surrender. They also conducted a series of independent ground attack missions against targets in the home islands.

These raids were frequently made against airfields to destroy aircraft being held in reserve to attack the expected Allied invasion fleet.

While the P pilots only occasionally encountered Japanese fighters in the air, the airfields were protected by anti-aircraft batteries and barrage balloons.

The fighter pilots claimed to have destroyed or damaged 1, aircraft and ships along with large numbers of buildings and railway rolling stock.

American losses were 91 pilots killed and Mustangs destroyed. These raids formed part of the preparation for the invasion of Japan. On 21 June an additional fighter group joined this effort, and the campaign was reinforced by bombers and another fighter group from 1 July.

While these American operations were initially fiercely contested, from early July onwards they encountered little opposition as the Japanese aircraft were withdrawn so that they could be preserved for later operations.

Between 1 and 13 July, the Americans flew medium and heavy bomber sorties over Kyushu without loss. As the fighters met few Japanese aircraft, they were mainly used to attack transportation infrastructure and targets of opportunity; these included at least two strafing attacks on groups of civilians.

Attacks on airfields and transportation infrastructure in southern Japan continued until the end of the war.

By this time the Fifth Air Force's bombers had flown sorties against airfields in Kyushu and the Seventh Air Force had conducted a further Road and railway bridges were attacked by both fighters and bombers, and the city of Kagoshima was frequently bombed.

The FEAF staged its last attacks against Japan on 12 August; aircraft were dispatched on 14 August but recalled while en route to their targets.

Overall, the two air forces flew 6, sorties against targets in Kyushu during July and August for the loss of 43 aircraft to Japanese anti-aircraft guns and fighters.

Japan's air defenses were unable to stop the Allied air attacks. Japanese signals intelligence units could provide longer warning times of incoming raids by eavesdropping on the bombers' radio communications, but were unable to predict the target of the attack.

As a result, fighter units did not have enough time to scramble and reach the bombers' cruising altitude before they arrived over their target, and most raids were intercepted by only small numbers of aircraft.

Moreover, the American bombers were capable of flying faster at high altitude than many Japanese fighters. Due to the difficulty of intercepting and downing Bs, the Japanese fighter pilots increasingly perceived their efforts as being futile.

Air combat was most intense in late and early Following the first B raids on Tokyo, the number of IJN aircraft assigned to air defense duties was greatly increased and all centimeter 4.

The number of fighters available declined from late January, however. Resistance to the air raids decreased sharply from April On 15 April the IJAAF and IJN air defense units were belatedly placed under a single command when the Air General Army was formed under the command of General Masakazu Kawabe , but by this time the fighter force's effectiveness had been greatly reduced due to high rates of casualties in training accidents and combat.

Due to the poor standard of the remaining pilots and the deployment of P Mustangs to escort Bs, the Japanese leadership decided in April to withdraw their remaining fighters from combat.

These aircraft were placed in reserve to counterattack the Allied invasion. Overall, Japanese fighters shot down 74 Bs, anti-aircraft guns accounted for a further 54, and 19 were downed by a combination of anti-aircraft guns and fighters.

Many of the Allied airmen who were captured after being shot down over Japan were mistreated. On 8 September , the Cabinet of Japan directed that indiscriminate bombing constituted a war crime [] despite the fact there was no international treaty or instrument protecting a civilian population specifically from attack by aircraft at the time.

Of the approximately Allied airmen who were captured in the Japanese home islands excluding the Kuril and Bonin Islands , were executed and 29 were killed by civilians.

The Western Military Command assisted in arranging these operations. Several of those found guilty were executed and the remainder were imprisoned.

Beginning in the United States, with assistance from Britain and other Allied countries, devoted considerable resources to developing nuclear weapons through the Manhattan Project.

Truman approved the use of atomic bombs against Japan, and the next day Spaatz received written orders to this effect. These orders specified that the first attack should be made after 3 August, and named Hiroshima , Kokura , Niigata and Nagasaki as targets.

Stimson owing to Kyoto's cultural value; the city had also been excluded from the urban firebombing raids on the same grounds. The Japanese government rejected the Allied demands on 28 July.

Hiroshima was attacked on 6 August. The resulting explosion killed tens of thousands of people and destroyed about 4. Estimates of the total number of fatalities range as high as , Following the attack, a statement from President Truman was broadcast to announce that the United States had used an atomic bomb against Hiroshima and that further air attacks would be conducted on Japan's industrial facilities and transportation network.

The statement included a threat that if Japan did not surrender under the terms specified in the Potsdam Declaration it would be subjected to "a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth".

The second atomic bomb attack was made on 9 August. The city was found to be covered in smoke and haze, however; as a result, the plane's pilot, Major Charles Sweeney , decided to attack the secondary target of Nagasaki instead.

The Japanese government began negotiations with the Allies about the terms of surrender on 10 August. The next day, President Truman ordered a halt to the bombing due to the possibility that it would be interpreted as a sign that the peace negotiations had failed.

In fact, Bs escorted by fighters for a total of 1, aircraft were dispatched; during the day precision raids were made against targets at Iwakuni, Osaka and Tokoyama and at night the cities of Kumagaya and Isesaki were firebombed.

Limited air operations continued over Japan in the weeks following the Japanese government's decision to surrender.

Supply drops began 10 days later, and continued until 20 September. During this period the Bs flew almost 1, sorties and delivered close to 4, tons of supplies.

Allied air units participated in the occupation of Japan after the war. Japan's bomb-damaged cities were rebuilt after the war.

War damage and the need to rehouse soldiers and civilians returning from overseas resulted in a shortage of 4. Requisitions of land and buildings for use by the occupation force and a requirement that the Japanese government prioritize the construction of housing for the Allied troops interfered with reconstruction, however.

The air attacks on Japan caused hundreds of thousands of casualties, though estimates of the number who were killed and wounded vary considerably.

The strategic attacks by the Twentieth Air Force caused most of the casualties and damage. The figures most frequently cited in the literature on the campaign are sourced from the USSBS report The Effects of Bombing on Health and Medical Services in Japan which estimated that , Japanese were killed and , wounded.

Included in this figure were an estimated , dead and , injured in the two atomic bomb attacks. While this figure is also occasionally cited, the USSBS' investigators regarded the work of their statistical teams as unsatisfactory, and the researchers were unable to calculate the error rate of this estimate.

Over 2, American bomber crew members were killed, including POWs who died in captivity, and a further were wounded. The following table provides examples of the estimated number of Japanese casualties from air attack in different sources:.

Much of Japan's industrial capacity was also destroyed by Allied bombing. Over major industrial facilities were destroyed or badly damaged, contributing to a large decline in production.

Statistics compiled by the USSBS show a correlation between the number of B sorties directed at different industries and the amount by which their production declined, but air attacks were not the only reason for these differences.

The resulting shortage of rice caused widespread malnutrition, and mass starvation would have occurred had the war continued. The attacks also caused extensive damage to Japan's urban areas.

During the final months of the war the raids also contributed to the deterioration of the Japanese social fabric. Allied air raids significantly influenced the Japanese government's decision to surrender.

While the USSBS did not state that any single factor caused the surrender, during interrogations most Japanese wartime leaders nominated the prolonged air attacks on the home islands as the single most important factor which influenced their decision to end the war.

Emperor Hirohito cited damage from the attacks, inadequate preparations to resist invasion and the Soviet offensive as his justifications for authorizing the surrender.

Of this total, , tons of bombs were dropped by the B bomber force. During the war the American public approved of the bombing of Germany and Japan, and the few people who criticized the raids were seen as unrealistic or even traitors.

Some United States government and military personnel believed that the bombing campaign was morally ambiguous, however, but rarely voiced their views publicly.

The moral concerns over the attacks have focused on the large number of civilian casualties and property damage they caused.

For this and other reasons, British philosopher A. Grayling has concluded that the Allied area bombing campaigns against both Japan and Germany constituted moral crimes.

Hoyt wrote in that Japanese people commonly regard the Allied bombing of civilians as the worst atrocity of the war.

However, historian Richard B. Frank argues that this difference was attributable to the evolution in views towards bombing over the course of the war, the limited intelligence on the structure of the Japanese economy available to the Allies and the much greater vulnerability of Japanese cities to incendiary bombs.

The moral defense of the attacks on Japanese cities rests on an argument that they saved lives by shortening the war. Historian E.

Bartlett Kerr supported this assessment, and argued that the firebombing of Japan's major cities was the key factor motivating Hirohito's decision to end the war.

The atomic bomb attacks have been the subject of long-running controversy. Criticisms over the decision to use the bombs have increased over time, however.

Arguments made against the attacks include that Japan would have eventually surrendered and that the attacks were made to either intimidate the Soviet Union or justify the Manhattan Project.

On two occasions Japanese citizens have sued their government for damages from the bombings, arguing that the government is culpable for having waged a "reckless war" that provoked the bombings and for requiring civilians to remain in the targeted areas.

In December the Tokyo District Court dismissed one of the suits, stating that it was not possible to identify individuals who deserve compensation as almost all Japanese suffered as a result of the war.

The court also ruled that any compensation should be allocated through the legislative, rather than judicial, process.

In December , the Osaka District Court handed down a similar ruling, adding that the government did not violate its constitution in its treatment of bombing victims.

This judgement stated that there had not been "unreasonable disparity" in how civilians, soldiers, and atomic bomb survivors were treated, and that the government had showed "no gross deviation from its discretionary right in not legislating for redress measures".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japan campaign. Main article: Doolittle Raid. Main article: Operation Matterhorn.

See also: Japanese war crimes. Main article: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan portal World War II portal. Document Archive.

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