Nick Szabo Inhaltsverzeichnis
Nick Szabo ist ein Informatiker, Rechtswissenschaftler und Kryptograf, der für seine Forschungen zu digitalen Verträgen und digitaler Währung bekannt ist. Der studierte Informatiker und Rechtswissenschaftler Nick Szabo ist wie kein zweiter dafür verantwortlich, dass aus dem bloßen Transaktionsregister Blockchain. Nick Szabo ist ein Informatiker, Rechtsgelehrter und Kryptograph, der für seine Forschung in digitalen Verträgen und in digitaler Währung bekannt ist. Nick Szabo @NickSzabo4. Bitcoin has or is evolving through several stages of value transfer: 1. small value transfers at layer 1 when Bitcoin was a tiny niche. Nick Szabo is an American cryptographer and computer scientist who has largely contributed to digital money and cryptocurrency as well as to digital contracts.
Der studierte Informatiker und Rechtswissenschaftler Nick Szabo ist wie kein zweiter dafür verantwortlich, dass aus dem bloßen Transaktionsregister Blockchain. Nick Szabo ist ein Informatiker, Rechtsgelehrter und Kryptograph, der für seine Forschung in digitalen Verträgen und in digitaler Währung bekannt ist. Nick Szabo is an American cryptographer and computer scientist who has largely contributed to digital money and cryptocurrency as well as to digital contracts.
Thanks, Norman. Great interview. Good mix of theory and practice on cryptocurrency as well as other thought provoking ideas and concepts.
I was excited to hear that you were putting on this podcast with Nick and the questions were great. If I had to adjust something, it would be nice if Tim reigned in Naval on some the conversation, Naval tends to go on and on and sometimes off topic to always make some sort of point rather than being informative.
This was effectively an interview of Naval Ravikant. He answered half or more of the questions himself.
Did much more talking than Szabo. Nick assumed a lot of knowledge that non-tech people would not understand, and Naval possibly even recorded explainers after the show that were then inserted.
My question is, now that the worlds largest banks are finally jumping on board, and are in fact creating their very own cryptocurrencies, how will this effect other currencies like bitcoin, ethereum, litecoin etc.?
Negatively or in a positive way? I really hope not, but this is where my mind immediately goes when I think of the pound gorilla entering the room.
Singapore is working on a tokenized currency based on the Ethereum platform. Other countries doing something like this makes a lot more sense than building their own currency from scratch.
Using Ethereum as a common protocol allows for much easier interoperability between currencies. One of the best explanations of the phenomenon to date.
PhDs talking about relying on machines and maths. Note to self: stay away from it or find a way to short the entire system for when it eventually goes [Moderator: word removed.
Funny, thats what people were saying years ago when you could buy Bitcoin for a few cents. As far as shorting digital commodities, i suppose one would load up on physical ones.
Perhaps a better plan would be to start mining, and buying on a monthly auto buy basis using dollar cost averaging?
Subjects like these really need your editorial take on them and the presence of Naval was much needed to ask some good questions.
I love when you do those episodes where you treat very narrow subjects in a such deep way. Really great episode. So much good info.
Also sounds like you might find the book Post-Capitalism by Paul Mason interesting. Arnold Schwarzenegger and Dorian Yates mentioned chiropractic in your interviews so your fans might be interested.
I know you are celebrating round birthday next month and I would send you a book-gift if it is possible. I believe you will love the book and will be able to experience it deeply.
We just saw 20k people who are on their way to be slaughtered — but what can I trade you for that onion? The problem is there is no ebook version of it, so I would need to send physical copy somewhere.
I do not mean your home address, rather some address you can safely give to a stranger on internet. I thought this episode was incredible.
Thanks so much for putting these incredible thinkers on our collective radar. I was disappointed with this episode. When the question of what are some real world blockchain use cases beyond money, I was hoping the already-being-experimented-with use case of land-property ownership registry would be mentioned.
Another interesting example is the new Prism exchange from Erik Voorhees, which allows investment in a broad cryptocurrency portfolio, without actually having to buy any currency except Ethereum through a smart contract.
I completely disagree. I had little to no knowledge nor interest in Bitcoin before this podcast.
It came up in my feed and I clicked on it, thinking I would be easily annoyed or bored and ready to move on to something else.
Instead, I found it fascinating and am recommending it to others. Perhaps someone else explained it better but it captured my novice interest.
But the disadvantage to that style is you miss out on some of the nuggets, the little slip-ups if you will, where you uncover the real theme or direction of a guest, or just their amazingness.
In this way, the interview was excellent and highly revealing, IMO. So this kind of anarchy is what is driving this effort. Ok, cool.
IMO the rise of ransomware and the Dark Web, all made possible by bitcoin. What was the coin mentioned towards the end after the 2 hr mark?
I want to say I heard Falcoin? Just wanted to drop a quick comment and say I appreciate your method of questioning in these podcasts.
I like Naval a lot, but I was hoping to hear more from Nick, especially on his philosophy freedom, privacy, voluntary exchange and how technology can make it happen on a large scale in near future.
I hope there will be another episode. I have listened to Tim for the last 5 years now and I always wanted to understand BitCoin and how it worked and I can say this is the smartest, easiest and most profound podcast on BitCoin and CryptoCurrency.
Merci TIM! Did he finish that thought? Can anyone share a link to info on bitcoin, etc. What does that mean?
Which is more durable? Aside from physical degradation, could anything cause either piece of art to decrease in value? Is art durable currency?
All evidence points to this art only appreciating in value over time. Everything I touch turns to gold! Three years ago, I was ready to sell a gorgeous, big jar for under a thousand bucks because I needed cash.
People gravitated towards it far more than other jars. Today, letting that jar leave my possession for less than 20 grand seems like it could be a big mistake.
Funderbeam, out of Estonia, is a great example of combinding fundraising, trading and storing your finaicial assets on a blockchain. I just like to share with you that the Norweigan finace webpage e A part in the development of products for next level with user focus.
They are an absolute joke and a mess from a security perspective. The debarcle with people being able to exploit the contract for Etheruem — because the code was the contract, and the code was poorly written — and cash out all the investors value was but one example of this.
The ability of the team to void the original contract and start afresh, is an example of how your money is not safe That was fraud..
Can you imagine that happening in any other financial arena??? With massive amounts of money involved.
You should know this. Any genuine security professional taking the merest glance at the code will tell you this. It is not the sort of thing people are willing to hear.
The following is a comment a few days ago, on an esteemed security blog, by a highly respected professional in infosec:. They wanted me to took at their stuff and to examine its safety and security and to make suggestions on how to repair any eventual weaknesses.
Thanks, no more questions. Not all alt coins are secure. Loved the podcast and the potential for blockchain. Also as a fan of analogies I like the amber analogy.
That aside I have two questions for your guests, firstly, if I heard correctly there is an upper limit to the number of bitcoin that can be mined.
The second question is when are you going to get Bruce Schneier on your podcast, I would love to get his take on the security of blockchain among other topics.
Bruce would be great, and so would Mikko Hypponen mikko to explain some of the downsides to the digital currency.
Or maybe they were dumbing it down a bit for the audience, but that is a rather basic misunderstanding, surely these guys know of the weaknesses of PRNGs etc?
Thank you Tim, Naval, Nick — I learnt so much here. In particular, valuing the reminder and nice articulation of what money is and what currency is.
Would like a follow up convo on this regarding the August 1st BTC segwit switch. An absolute gem of an episode! Thank you, Tim. The best 10 hours I have spent in quite some time.
Investing into a novel idea can seem daunting. I implore everyone to do their research and to be leery of the youtubers and twitter-ers?
Investing long term in projects that solve problems and are scale-able are the keys to success. Leave the emotion and ego at the door!
Really enjoyed this 3-way conversation, it really helped in demystifying the whole Bitcoin world. Such an informational and definitive guide to Crypto and the Bitcoin space.
Loved the episode Tim. Please keep doing more cryptocurrency related episodes. Maybe invite the Coinbase founder or one of the top developers?
Can anyone recommend and good books kindle or audible on cryptocurrency, bitcoin, blockchain, etc or any recommended authors?
Other than Naval and Nick of course. One of my top 3 TF podcasts! The 4 hour work week and Tools and Titans changed my life.
Money is only paper or numbers in a spreadsheet , like Monopoly money. Like in Monopoly, money is created for this specific game only.
The same is true for the US Dollar. That is the only reason the US Dollar has any value. And God knows you have to pay your taxes.
Everything else in the economy domestic or international follows. The Government can print as much as it wants and will never run out of money.
But every one else person or company must balance their budget. Bitcoin transactions are not tied to any personal information which allows users to protect their privacy.
It is highly recommended to only use Bitcoin addresses once to avoid your identity being revealed either through a specific purchase or other means.
Your guests are brilliant. I have two obvious things to share that did not come out in the interview:. A key distinction and attraction of Bitcoin is that unlike state sponsored fiat currencies, it is a scarce resource and guaranteed to stay that way mathematically capped at 21M — and as they point out, that is a theoretical cap that will never be reached as lost Bitcoin is lost forever.
DRY is a programming principle that speaks to efficiency, ease of maintenance, and the value of standardizing that which can be codified without any loss of meaning or utility.
It is not necessarily a bad thing. Can the leger ever be interrogated to resolve a dispute — if so who rules? Who regulates this?
Although I am a fan of the podcast and have listened to most episodes prior to a year ago. My question is to Tim, and or the collective- are you diversified into cryptocurrencies, and if so what exchange do you find most beneficial.
I would like to get into lesser known selections other than bitcoin due to my current limited disposable investment cap into this area.
Great advice!! I love read your blog I almost visit every week and read your informative articles from your website. A friend of mine introduced me to bitcoin back in , if only I had taken the time to look into it then.
It still feels like the golden era for cryptocurrencies though so better now than in another five years time….
Thanks for the awesome topics. Generally, people need to be aware of such technical terms before they decide to invest or participate in mining of any cryptocurrency.
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Nick Szabo VideoNick Szabo Interview - The Tim Ferriss Show (Podcast) Wer Nick Szabos Twitter-Account verfolgt, könnte den Eindruck gewinnen, der Kryptograph sei ein Bitcoin-Maximalist. In einem Tweet machte. Nun meldet sich auch der Bitcoin-Pionier Nick Szabo zu Wort und spricht über eine zunehmende Zentralisierung von Ethereum. Der Begriff „Smart Contract“ geht auf den US-amerikanischen Informatiker und Juristen Nick Szabo zurück. Dieser hatte schon Ende der 90er. Monthly Bitcoin Meetup at the Effinger coffee bar. There are no organized talks or anything similar, just ourselves exchanging experiences and ideas and having. Nick Szabo, Smart Contracts: Building Blocks for Digital Markets, /Literature/LOTwinterschool/frank-design.co, ; Vitalik.
Nick Szabo - Die Crypto – Peers der 1. Stunde – Szabo vs NakamatoDabei handelt es sich um die Frage, wie verhindert werden kann, dass eine Digitalmünze mehr als einmal ausgegeben wird. In Szabos bit-gold-Struktur würde ein Teilnehmer sich mit Computerkraft befassen, um kryptographische Rätsel zu lösen. Kontakt Impressum Datenschutz. Finney schlug vor, ihn bei der Implementierung zu unterstützen. Die meisten digitalen Währungen lösen das Problem, indem sie die Kontrolle einer zentralen Behörde überlassen, die den Kontostand jedes Kontos überwacht. Er schwieg sich fast zwei Jahre lang zu Bitcoin aus. Dies war eine inakzeptable Lösung für Szabo. Die Gründe dürften click at this page sein: Alleine schon sein Bitcoin-Schatz würde ihn zur Zielscheibe machen — nicht nur von Kriminellen, sondern auch Regierungsbehörden. Unter ihnen waren Wei Dai, der mit b-money eine hypothetische Kryptowährung erdachte, die viele Prinzipien aufweist, die heute Bitcoin definieren. Bitcoin kaufen noch einfacher: Kraken kooperiert mit Schweizer Bank. Das stellt sich eine entscheidende Frage: Wieso sollte Finney einer völlig unbekannten Figur wie Satoshi Nakamoto helfen, ein Projekt umzusetzen, das von Bit Gold inspiriert ist, und nicht seinem guten Bekannten, der visit web page Original erdacht hat? Please enter your comment! Satoshi Nakamoto schrieb später in seinem Forum bitcointalk. Kontakt Impressum Datenschutzerklärung. NickSzabo4 July 20, Monero hat eine Reihe von Mechanismen in sein Protokoll integriert, welche tatsächliche Anonymität gewährleisten.
Nick Szabo ZusammenfassungNickSzabo4 July 20, Monero hat eine Reihe von Mechanismen in sein Protokoll integriert, welche tatsächliche Anonymität gewährleisten. Sein Name: Nick Szabo. Neue Ideen und Konzepte, disruptive Really. Ranch Spiele nonsense! und nachhaltiges Unternehmertum bilden https://frank-design.co/casino-online-gambling/beste-spielothek-in-ehrsberg-finden.php Interessenschwerpunkte. Später wurde Finney die erste Person, die eine Überweisung via Bitcoin erhielt. Samstag, Juli 4, Bitcoin Kryptowährung. Specialized Bitcoin hardware is designed by more info paid experts to perform only one particular function—to repetitively solve a read article specific and intentionally very expensive kind of computational puzzle. It was complicated enough, but it involved exchanges and trading and bundling. As always thanks for the awesome podcast!! Were you envisaging the creation of something that could be a global money or was it just that you were more envisaging, "can I just create something that has the functions that you would want? So money's always been something that you've seemed to have taken great interest in, right?
Here, too, no single server is substantially relied on to properly operate the registry. To verify that Alice is the owner of a particular string of bit gold, Bob checks the unforgeable chain of title in the bit gold title registry.
To assay the value of a string of bit gold, Bob checks and verifies the challenge bits, the proof of work string, and the timestamp.
All of this can be automated by software. The main limits to the security of the scheme are how well trust can be distributed in steps 3 and 4 , and the problem of machine architecture which will be discussed below.
Of course, there are notable technical differences. In addition to this, Bitcoin is more fungible than its predecessor due to the difficulty adjustment system on the proof-of-work algorithm.
Nevertheless, the philosophy behind both of the ideas is one and the same: removing TTPs, solving the problem of inflation, and creating an online currency system that can be trusted, securely transferred and stored.
Today when you read the news on the latest developments in the cryptocurrency industry, you can frequently stumble upon articles about new ICOs, their potential to change the way in which certain elements of an industry works, new ICO scams, frauds, ICO tokens reaching mind-blowing growth in prices in ridiculously short timeframes and what not.
The vending machine is the simplest form of a self-executing contract. If you put the right coin in, and press the right buttons, you get a can of soda.
If you make a mistake during the process, or the machine is not able to deliver your soda, it spits back the coin you gave it.
Verifiability — the ability of a principal to prove to an arbitrator that a contract has been performed or breached, or the ability of the arbitrator to find this out by other means.
Privity — the principle that knowledge and control over the contents and performance of a contract should be distributed among parties only as much as is necessary for the performance of that contract.
Whether the contractual agreement has been designed efficiently or not can be roughly judged by its execution of the four basic objectives.
Do you notice something special in the name? It seems to look like an anagram for me. Maybe, this will give you an idea.
Many things have changed since, but one thing remains the same, the entity that created it, resides unknown. The price of one bitcoin is roughly 17, dollars… After doing your own math, you can probably see why there is all the fuss in the media about who this man is.
Many conspiracies are surrounding Satoshi, and many researchers who claim they have found him, but none of them are conclusive. So what has Nick Szabo has to do with all of this?
Well, prior to the release of Bitcoin, there were a few digital cash solutions that most likely were an inspiration or an influence to Satoshi.
All of them individually are suspected by different conspiracy theorists to be Satoshi himself. In April , Szabo apparently decided to manifest his idea into reality and wrote the following on his blog:.
Anybody want to help me code one up? Fishy, eh? When Satoshi steps down at the end of , suddenly Szabo starts talking about cryptocurrency again.
It looks like things are starting to add up…. Hal was an early Bitcoin user; in fact, he received the first bitcoin transaction from Satoshi Nakamoto.
In addition to that, Hal lived in the same small town for ten years just a few blocks away from Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto , the guy that was initially accused by some reporters to be the creator of Bitcoin.
It pointed out that Hal Finney had lived for almost a decade in Temple City, the same 36, person town where Newsweek found Dorian Nakamoto.
He then proceeds to explain that as his research got deeper and deeper, he got more and more convinced that in fact, Nick Szabo is the name behind the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, and distinctly lays the reasons why he got this impression in great detail.
The study was conducted by 40 final-year students led by Dr Jack Grieve. Our study adds to the weight of evidence pointing towards Nick Szabo.
The case looks pretty clear-cut. Szabo is an expert in law, finance, cryptography and computer science. Did Nick Szabo create Bitcoin?
When we consolidate all of the arguments already mentioned, it all adds up to a pretty strong case. However, the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto remains a mystery.
His opinions on anything related to cryptocurrencies are well respected and influential to this day.
Header image by Gavin Fiorina , Other images: 1 , 2. I actually like that Nick Szabo chose to not be so open about things.
I enjoy the secrecy and yes, just like you said, we should focus on the ideas and not the people behind them.
Yes, I know. I stopped trying to dig up information on a someone I like a long time ago. I like to hold on to a good impression and not ruin it by finding who knows what.
This man is a genius and is clear he can see things in a different light than most of us. I can only imagine what the world would look like if maybe We can only dream of that.
Anything is possible. He could be the person behind Bitcoin. In most cases an often trusted and sufficiently trustworthy institution such as a market depends on its participants trusting, usually implicitly, another sufficiently trustworthy institution such as contract law.
These trusted institutions in turn traditionally implement a variety of accounting, legal, security, or other controls that make them usually and sufficiently, at least for facilitating the functionality of their client institutions, trustworthy, by minimizing vulnerability to their own participants such as accountants, lawyers, regulators, and investigators.
An innovation can only partially take away some kinds of vulnerability, i. There is no such thing as a fully trustless institution or technology.
The nonexistence of complete trustlessness is true even of our strongest security technology, encryption. Although some cryptographic protocols do guarantee certain specific data relationships with astronomically high probability against opponents with astronomically high computing power, they do not provide complete guarantees when accounting for all possible behaviors of all participants.
For example, encryption can strongly protect an e-mail from direct eavesdropping by third parties, but the sender still trusts the recipient to not forward or otherwise divulge the contents of that email, directly or indirectly to any undesired third parties.
The historically recent breakthroughs of computer science can reduce vulnerabilities, often dramatically so, but they are far from eliminating all kinds of vulnerabilities to the harmful behavior of any potential attacker.
Matchmaking is facilitating the mutual discovery of mutually beneficial participants. Matchmaking is probably the kind of social scalability at which the Internet has most excelled.
Social networks like Usenet News, Facebook, and Twitter facilitate the mutual discovery of like-minded or otherwise mutually entertaining or mutually informing people and even future spouses!
After they have allowed people more likely to be of mutual benefit to discover each other, social networks then facilitate relationships at various levels of personal investment, from casual to frequent to obsessive.
Christopher Allen among others has done some interesting and detailed analyses about group size and time spent mutually interacting in online games and associated social networks.
Whereas the main social scalability benefit of the Internet has been matchmaking, the predominant direct social scalability benefit of blockchains is trust minimization.
A blockchain can reduce vulnerability by locking in the integrity of some important performances such as the creation and payment of money and some important information flows, and in the future may reduce the vulnerability of the integrity of some important matchmaking functions.
Trust in the secret and arbitrarily mutable activities of a private computation can be replaced by verifiable confidence in the behavior of a generally immutable public computation.
This essay will focus on such vulnerability reduction and its benefit in facilitating a standard performance beneficial to a wide variety of potential counterparties, namely trust-minimized money.
Money and markets directly benefit the participants in each particular trade by the market matching a buyer with a mutually beneficial seller and by a widely acceptable and standardized counter-performance money.
I use markets here in the sense Adam Smith used the term: not as a specific place or service where buyers and sellers are brought together although it might sometimes involve these , but rather the broad set of typically pairwise exchanges whereby the supply chain that makes a product is coordinated.
Money and markets also incentivize creation of more accurate price signals that reduce negotiation costs and errors for participants in other similar exchanges.
The potent combination of money and market thereby allowed a far higher number and variety of participants to coordinate their economic activities than previous exchange institutions, which more resembled bilateral monopolies than competitive markets.
Markets and money involve matchmaking bringing together buyer and seller , trust reduction trusting in the self-interest rather than in the altruism of acquaintances and strangers , scalable performance via money, a widely acceptable and reusable medium for counter-performance , and quality information flow market prices.
The greatest early thinker about money and markets was Adam Smith. At the dawn of the industrial revolution in Britain, Smith observed in The Wealth of Nations how making even the most humble of products depended, directly and indirectly, on the work of large numbers of a wide variety of people:.
Observe the accommodation of the most common artificer or day-laborer in a civilized and thriving country, and you will perceive that the number of people of whose industry a part, though but a small part, has been employed in procuring him this accommodation, exceeds all computation.
The woolen coat, for example, which covers the day laborer, as coarse and rough as it may appear, is the produce of the joint labor of a great multitude of workmen.
The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must all join their different arts in order to complete even this homely production.
How many merchants and carriers, besides, must have been employed in transporting the materials from some of those workmen to others who often live in a very distant part of the country!
How much commerce and navigation in particular, how many shipbuilders, sailors, sail makers, rope makers, must have been employed in order to bring together the different drugs made use of by the dyer, which often come from the remotest corners of the world!
What a variety of labor, too, is necessary in order to produce the tools of the meanest of those workmen! To say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us consider only what a variety of labor is requisite in order to form that very simple machine, the shears with which the shepherd clips the wool.
The miner, the builder of the furnace for smelting the ore, the feller of the timber, the burner of the charcoal to be made use of in the smelting-house, the brick maker, the brick layer, the workmen who attend the furnace, the millwright, the forger, the smith, must all of them join their different arts in order to produce them.
And this was before the many successive waves of industrial revolution and globalization between and now that refined, elaborated, and extended the division of labor many times more.
Rather than trusting in the unlikely altruism of so many strangers, markets and money create many pairings of mutual benefit and thus motivate this large network of mutually oblivious people to act in our interests:.
In civilized society man stands at all times in need of the cooperation and assistance of great multitudes, while his whole life is scarce sufficient to gain the friendship of a few persons…[In contrast to other animals,] man has an almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only… [Exchange is the] manner in which we obtain from another the far greater part of those good offices which we stand in need of.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard for their own interest.
As the exchange network around a country and around the globe grows, involving a greater number and variety of producers, so grows the division of labor and thereby labor productivity.
Money facilitates social scalability by increasing the opportunities for this exchange. By lowering coincidence problems coincidence-of-wants in exchange and coincidence-of-want-and-event in unilateral transfers , via a widely acceptable and reusable form of wealth storage and transfer, money greatly lowered transaction costs, making possible more exchanges of a greater variety of goods and services involving exchanges and other wealth transfer relationships with a much larger number and much wider variety of people.
A wide variety of media, from oral language itself, clay , paper, telegraph, radio, and computer networks, have served to communicate offers, acceptances, and the resulting deals and prices, as well as performance monitoring and other business communications.
In a system in which the knowledge of the relevant facts is dispersed among many people, prices can act to coordinate the separate actions of different people…in any society in which many people collaborate, this planning, whoever does it, will in some measure have to be based on knowledge which, in the first instance, is not given to the planner but to somebody else, which somehow will have to be conveyed to the planner.
The various ways in which the knowledge on which people base their plans is communicated to them is the crucial problem for any theory explaining the economic process, and the problem of what is the best way of utilizing knowledge initially dispersed among all the people is at least one of the main problems of economic policy—or of designing an efficient economic system… The mere fact that there is one price for any commodity—or rather that local prices are connected in a manner determined by the cost of transport, etc.
The price system is just one of those formations which man has learned to use though he is still very far from having learned to make the best use of it after he had stumbled upon it without understanding it.
Through it not only a division of labor but also a coordinated utilization of resources based on an equally divided knowledge has become possible…a solution is produced by the interactions of people each of whom possesses only partial knowledge.
Where long ago we used clay, and more recently paper, today programs and protocols running on our computers and data networks implement most of our commercial dealings.
While this has greatly improved matchmaking and information flow, it has come at the cost of an increase in vulnerability to harmful behavior.
As networks grow, more people with fewer mutually understood habits of and constraints on behavior are added. Security via root-trusting access control, designed for small and chummy offices like Bell Labs where co-workers were well known and income and expenditures well controlled by paper procedures rather than performed on these office computers, breaks down as an efficient and effective security mechanism as organizations become larger, as organizational boundaries are crossed, and as more valuable and concentrated resources such as money are put on or activated via the computers.
The more strangers one receives emails from, the more likely one is likely to get a phishing attack or a malware-laced attachment.
Traditional computer security is not very socially scalable. When we currently use a smart phone or a laptop on a cell network or the Internet, the other end of these interactions typically run on other solo computers, such as web servers.
Practically all of these machines have architectures that were designed to be controlled by a single person or a hierarchy of people who know and trust each other.
Even data sent encrypted over a network is eventually unencrypted and ends up on a computer controlled in this total way. With current web services we are fully trusting, in other words we are fully vulnerable to, the computer, or more specifically the people who have access to that computer, both insiders and hackers, to faithfully execute our orders, secure our payments, and so on.
If somebody on the other end wants to ignore or falsify what you've instructed the web server to do, no strong security is stopping them, only fallible and expensive human institutions, which often stop at national borders.
Many server computers are not valuable enough for insiders or outsiders to attack. But an increasing number of others contain valuable concentrations of resources, motivating attack.
Centralized root-trusting security scales poorly. Fortunately, with blockchains we can do much better for many of our most important computations.
Scalable markets and prices require scalable money. Scalable money requires scalable security, so that a greater number and variety of people can use the currency without losing its integrity against forgery, inflation, and theft.
By substituting computationally expensive but automated security for computationally cheap but institutionally expensive traditional security, Satoshi gained a nice increase in social scalability.
A set of partially trusted intermediaries replaces a single and fully trusted intermediary. When we can secure the most important functionality of a financial network by computer science rather than by the traditional accountants, regulators, investigators, police, and lawyers, we go from a system that is manual, local, and of inconsistent security to one that is automated, global, and much more secure.
Cryptocurrencies, when implemented properly on public blockchains, can substitute an army of computers for a large number of traditional banking bureaucrats.
The characteristics most distinctively valuable in blockchain technology in general, and Bitcoin in particular — for example. Since the mid th century computing has increased in efficiency by many orders of magnitude, but humans are using the same brains.
This has created plenty of possibility for overcoming human limitations, and institutions based solely on human minds, with computational capabilities, including in security, doing what they do best, with human minds doing what they still do best.
As a result, humans have no more raw mental ability to scale up our institutions than we ever have. But there is plenty of potential for improving social scalability by replacing some human functions with computational ones.
An important note—this argument depends on the slope, not the absolute position, of the human ability line. Gox; it is not going to become a trustworthy financial intermediary without that bureaucracy.
Computers and networks are cheap. Scaling computational resources requires cheap additional resources. Scaling human traditional institutions in a reliable and secure manner requires increasing amounts accountants, lawyers, regulators, and police, along with the increase in bureaucracy, risk, and stress that such institutions entail.
Lawyers are costly. Regulation is to the moon. Computer science secures money far better than accountants, police, and lawyers.
In computer science there are fundamental security versus performance tradeoffs. Bitcoin's automated integrity comes at high costs in its performance and resource usage.
It is probable that no such big but integrity-preserving performance improvement is possible for the Bitcoin blockchain; this may be one of these unavoidable tradeoffs.
Compared to existing financial IT, Satoshi made radical tradeoffs in favor of security and against performance.
The seemingly wasteful process of mining is the most obvious of these tradeoffs, but Bitcoin also makes others. Among them is that it requires high redundancy in its messaging.
Mathematically provable integrity would require full broadcast between all nodes. So a 1 MB block consumes far more resources than a 1 MB web page, because it has to be transmitted, processed, and stored with high redundancy for Bitcoin to achieve its automated integrity.
These necessary tradeoffs, sacrificing performance in order to achieve the security necessary for independent, seamlessly global, and automated integrity, mean that the Bitcoin blockchain itself cannot possibly come anywhere near Visa transaction-per-second numbers and maintain the automated integrity that creates its distinctive advantages versus these traditional financial systems.